Zenith Media Communications Timeline

16 september 2003, 11:29

Fraai overzicht van Zenith Media!



1000 Writing paper made out of tree bark in Mexico (by the Mayas)

1019 The novel Genji Monogatari was written in Japan

1020 Julius Work Calendar written in England in Latin on vellum

1023 Paper money printed in China

1035 Paper recycled in Japan

1041 First movable type printing system using clay characters – in China

1066 Westminster Abbey opened

1086 The Domesday Book produced for William the Conqueror

1091 Arabic decimal system forms the basis of modern mathematics

1093 Trade guilds in England

1095 First Crusade sparks renewal of trade between Europe and Asia


1114 Trade fairs held at Champagne in France

1116 Chinese make stitched books

1130 First travel book is written by a French priest

1140 In Egypt paper made from cloth stripped from mummies

1147 Crusader taken prisoner returns with papermaking art

1153 A chicken restaurant (world's oldest existing eatery) opens in Kai-Feng

1155 A map of western China is the oldest known printed map

1174 The earliest known English horse races were held

1189 First European university – in Bologna, Italy


1200 European monasteries communicate by letter

1200 Messenger service started by the University of Paris

1210 St. Francis founds the Franciscans

1241 Metal type is used to print books in Korea

1250 China manufactures guns

1271 In China – free daily newspapers and mass-circulation booklets

1282 Paper watermarks are produced in Italy

1285 Spectacles invented in Italy

1298 The “Travels of Marco Polo” are published


1300 Wooden type is found in central Asia

1300 England recruits Flemish weavers promising “good beer, good food, good bed and good bedfellow.”

1305 Private postal service created in Europe

1309 First use of paper in England

1314 Football is banned in England for being too violent


1423 Europeans start using the Chinese method of block printing

1440 Johannes Gutenberg develops first workable printing press

1450 A few newsletters begin circulating in Europe

1452 Metal plates are used in printing

1453 First European printed book – Gutenberg prints the Bible in Latin

1454 Gutenberg prints 300 bibles in Latin at Mainz, Germany

1464 King of France establishes the French postal service

1475 William Caxton produces the first book printed in English, The Recuyell of the Historyes of Troye

1477 First handbill advertisement in England

1490 Printing of books on paper becomes more common in Europe

1492 Christopher Columbus discovers America


1500 Arithmetic + and – symbols are first used in Europe

1500 By now about 35,000 books have been printed (and 10 million copies)

1500 The watch is invented

1516 Hans Holbein in Basel painted a wooden shingle as an advertisement for the schoolmaster Oswald Geishüsler

1545 Garamond designs his printing typeface

1550 Wallpaper arrives in Europe – brought from China

1560 The portable camera obscura (Italy) allows precise tracing of an image

1565 The pencil is invented

1566 One of the world's first newspapers, “Notizie Scritte”, in Venice


1604 Robert Cawdrey's A Table Alphabeticall, the first English dictionary

1608 The telescope is invented

1609 World's first regularly published newspaper appears in Germany

1622 First English newspaper Weekly News

1622 First newspaper advertisement in England

1627 France introduces registered mail

1631 A French newspaper carries classified ads

1639 The first American books – Stephen Day prints Freeman's Oath and An Almanack in Cambridge, Massachusetts

1640 Kirchner builds a magic lantern – the first 'cinema projector'

1650 Leipzig has a daily newspaper

1650 The slide rule is invented (Edmund Gunter and William Oughtred)

1653 Mail boxes in Paris for postage-paid letters

1659 The first cheque is drawn in London on February 6

1659 The penny post in London

1663 The world's first magazine, Erbauliche Monaths-Unterredungen (Edifying Monthly Discussions), is published in Germany

1689 America's first newspaper, Publick Occurrences Both Forreign and Domestick, is printed in Boston, Massachusetts

1696 100 paper mills exist in England


1702 Mar 11: first daily newspaper in UK The Daily Courant (till 1735)

1704 The first newspaper advertisements in America – the Boston News Letter carries paid announcements such as one seeking a buyer for an Oyster bay, Long Island estate

1706 First evening newspaper The Evening Post issued in London

1710 Three-colour printing invented by Le Blon in Germany

1714 The first typewriter is patented by Henry Mill in England

1719 Reaumur proposes using wood to make paper

1720 South Sea Bubble, stock-market crash on Exchange Alley in UK

1725 Stereotyping printing system in Scotland

1727 Science of photochemistry starts (Schulze)

1727 The Gentleman's Magazine, the first modern magazine, in England

1732 A circulating library is started by Ben Franklin in Philadelphia

1741 First magazine in America is published – American Magazine

1742 Benjamin Franklin's General Magazine prints the first American magazine ads

1755 Regular mail ship sails between England and the colonies

1755 Dictionary of the English Language by Dr Samuel Johnson

1768 First edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica published in Edinburgh by William Smellie

1770 The eraser is invented

1772 Morning Post published in UK – until 1937

1774 Paper whitener invented in Sweden

1776 United States Declaration of Independence signed

1780 Electricity is discovered by Benjamin Franklin in the US

1780 Steel pen points start to replace quill feathers

1784 Vegetation used to print French book (instead of cloth)

1784 First edition of The Times (called The Daily Universal Register for 3 years)

1784 The Pennsylvania Packet & Daily Advertiser, America's first successful daily newspaper

1785 Stagecoaches carry the mail between towns in US

1790 The hydraulic press is invented in England

1791 Dec 4: The Observer – oldest Sunday newspaper in UK

1792 Mechanical semaphore signaler built in France

1792 Postal money orders are used in Britain

1792 Postal Act provides regular mail throughout the US

1794 The forerunner of cinemas, Panorama, opens in the US

1794 A signaling system connects Paris and Lille

1798 Lithography is invented by Senefelder in Germany

1799 A paper-making machine invented in France by Robert


1800 A letter takes 20 days to cross the US, coast to coast

1801 Semaphore system is built along the coast of France

1801 A loom using punch cards invented by Joseph-Marie Jacquard

1806 Carbon paper invented

1807 Camera lucida improves image tracing

1810 An electro-chemical telegraph is constructed in Germany

1813 Louis Appert – the first to can food

1814 A steam-powered rotary press prints The Times in England

1816 Newspapers delivered for less than 2 cents postage in the US

1816 Niépce captures image with 8-hour exposure

1818 Berzelius isolates selenium; its electric conductivity reacts to light

1820 The first manufactured calculating machine, the Arithmometer

1821 Sound is reproduced in England by Wheatstone

1823 Babbage builds a section of a calculating machine

1823 In England, Ronalds builds a telegraph in his garden; no one is interested

1827 Niépce makes the first true photograph

1827 The first microphone constructed by Wheatstone in England

1829 Daguerre joins Niépce to pursue photographic inventions

1829 First US patent for a typewriter given to Burke

1830 877,972 ads appeared in British newspapers

1832 Start of motion pictures – the Phenakistoscope and Stroboscope

1833 New York newspapers cost a penny – start of a mass market

1833 An electric telegraph runs nearly two miles in Germany

1834 Babbage conceives the Analytical Engine, forerunner of the computer

1835 Bennett publishes the first of his penny press editions

1837 William Procter and James Gamble found P&G in Cincinnati

1837 An electric telegraph patented by Wheatstone and Cooke in England

1837 An electric telegraph exhibited by Morse in the US

1837 The world's largest newspaper, the Sun, circulates 30,000 copies in the US

1837 Pitman publishes a book on shorthand in England

1838 3-D pictures produced by Wheatstone's Stereoscope in England

1838 Daguerre-Niépce method begins photography craze

1839 Fox Talbot in England produces photographs

1839 Electrotyping (duplicating of printing plates) invented by Jacobi in Russia

1839 Electricity runs a printing press

1839 Photographs printed from negatives by Fox Talbot in England

1840 First postage stamps are sold in Britain

1841 Volney Palmer, the first advertising agent “media broker”- charges newspapers a commission for bringing them ads

1841 The first type-composing machine is used in London

1841 Population of Britain is 18.5 million, USA 17 million

1842 Illustrated London News appears

1842 The Christmas card is 'invented'

1843 The photographic enlarger is invented in the US

1843 Ada, Lady Lovelace publishes her Notes explaining a computer

1843 First public telegraph line, from Paddington to Slough in UK

1844 Samuel F.B. Morse's telegraph connects Washington and Baltimore

1845 Cable is laid across the English Channel

1845 The typewriter ribbon is invented

1845 Tarmac laid for first time in Nottingham, UK

1846 Lenses are manufactured by Zeiss in Germany

1846 Double cylinder rotary press produces 8,000 sheets an hour

1847 Jeans are invented by Levi Strauss

1847 Rotary printing press prints newspapers in Philadelphia

1847 First use of telegraph as business tool

1847 A “copying telegraph” constructed by Bakewell in England

1848 Forerunner of the Associated Press is founded in New York

1849 The photographic slide

1850 The paper bag arrives

1850 The number of magazines published in the US reaches 685

1851 Wet-plate photography process invented by Archer

1851 A flash photograph taken at 1/100,000 second exposure by Talbot

1851 Newspaper postage cut in half in US; free distribution within county

1852 Postage stamps are widely used

1853 Envelopes made by paper folding machine

1854 Telegraph used in Crimean War

1854 An experimental telephone built by Bourseul in France

1854 Carte-de-visite process simplifies photography

1854 Curved stereotype plate obviates column rules; wide ads soon

1855 The printing telegraph is invented in the US

1855 Pre-payment of letters is made compulsory in US

1855 Registered letters enter service in US

1856 Photolithography started by Poitevan

1856 Blotting paper replaces sand boxes

1856 Machine folds newspapers and paper for books

1857 A machine to set type is demonstrated

1857 In France, Scott's phonautograph is a forerunner of Edison's phonograph

1858 Mail boxes appear on American streets

1858 First effort at transatlantic telegraph service fails

1858 Eraser is fitted to the end of a pencil

1858 An aerial photograph is taken

1859 Camera gets a wide-angled lens

1859 P&G employs 80 people and attracts sales of $1m

1860 In US, Sholes builds a functional typewriter

1861 The telegraph brings the Pony Express to an abrupt end

1861 First colour photography

1861 Stereoscope invented by Oliver Wendell Holmes

1862 A drawing is sent over a wire by Caselli in Italy

1862 The first paper money in the USA

1863 Large US cities get free home delivery of mail

1864 The railroad train hooks on a mail car

1864 Wireless electromagnetic waves are transmitted 14 miles in Virginia

1865 Atlantic cable ties Europe and US for instant communication

1868 Writing machine is called a “Type-Writer”; so is the typist

1869 N.W. Ayer, the first ad agency in the US

1869 Postcards are invented in Austria

1869 Transcontinental railway completed in America

1869 Ballbearings, celluloid, margarine, washing machine all invented

1870 Stock ticker comes to Wall Street

1870 Oct 1: First British postcard – halfpenny post

1871 Charles Bates establishes first ad agency offering “creative services” as well as media placement

1871 First newspaper printing of pictures (using halftone)

1872 Simultaneous transmission from both ends of a telegraph wire

1873 US postcard debuts costing one penny

1873 Illustrated daily newspaper appears in New York

1873 Maxwell publishes theory of radio waves

1873 Remington starts manufacturing Sholes' typewriters

1873 Typewriters get the QWERTY pseudo-scientific keyboard

1873 Lord Kelvin calculates the tides with a machine

1873 In Ireland, May uses selenium to send a signal through the Atlantic cable

1874 Universal Postal Union formed in the US

1875 Francis Ayer establishes the fixed ad commission system (15%)

1875 The mimeograph is invented by Edison

1875 Selenium mosaic used to transmit a picture by Carey in the US

1876 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone

1877 In France, Charles Cros invents the phonograph (record player)

1877 The first commercial telephone is introduced and the first telephone line is installed between Charlie William's electrical shop on Court Street, Boston and his home about three miles away.

1877 Edison also invents the phonograph

1877 James Walter Thompson buys Carlton & Smith, paying $500 for the business and $800 for the furniture. As JWT he moves into general magazine advertising.

1878 Muybridge photographs a horse in motion

1878 The cathode ray tube is invented by Crookes in England

1878 The microphone is invented in the US and Germany

1878 Telephone directories are issued

1878 Full page newspaper ads

1878 The Praxinoscope, an optical toy, in France (a step toward movies)

1878 Dry-plate photography

1879 Benday process aids newspaper production of maps and drawings

1880 First photos in newspapers, using halftones

1880 Edison invents the electric light

1880 France's Leblanc theorises transmitting a picture in segments

1880 The first parcel post

1882 The first Wirephotos, in England

1882 P&G's first national US ad – for Ivory soap in The Independent newspaper

1883 Edison stumbles onto the “Edison effect”; basis of broadcast tubes

1884 An early version of television – the Nipkow scanning disc in Germany

1884 Long distance telephone calls can now be made

1884 The electric tabulator is introduced

1884 Waterman's fountain pen blots out earlier versions

1885 Dictating machines are bought for offices

1885 Coated photo printing paper made by Eastman

1885 Trains deliver newspapers daily

1886 Graphophone's wax cylinder and sapphire stylus improve sound

1886 Mergenthaler constructs a linotype machine for setting type

1886 Coca-Cola syrup is invented by Dr John Styth Pemberton and sold in chemists, mixed with carbonated water

1887 Celluloid film; it will replace glass plate photography

1887 Montgomery Ward mails out a 540-page catalog

1887 Berliner gets music from a flat disc stamped out by machine

1887 The Newspaper Publishers Association is formed in US

1887 Comptometer multi-function adding machine is manufactured

1888 “Kodak” box camera makes picture taking simple for all

1888 Heinrich Hertz proves the existence of radio waves

1888 The coin-operated public telephone

1888 Edison's phonograph is manufactured for sale to the public

1889 Herman Hollerith counts the population with punch cards

1889 The automatic telephone exchange invented by Strowger in the US

1889 Mrs. WA Cockran produces a dishwashing machine in US.

1889 William Dickson builds the first motion-picture camera, the Kinetograph

1890 4,400 magazines reach 18 million circulation in the US

1890 AB Dick markets the mimeograph

1890 Typewriters are in common use in offices

1890 Kinematograph camera/projector built by Friese-Greene in England

1890 Branly's coherer conducts radio waves in France

1891 Large press prints and folds 90,000 4-page papers an hour

1891 Telephoto lens is attached to the camera

1891 First telephone link between London & Paris

1892 Edison and Dickson invent the peep-show Kinetoscope

1892 4-colour rotary press

1892 Portable typewriters

1892 Automatic telephone switchboard comes into service

1893 Coca-Cola is registered as a trademark by Atlanta pharmacist Asa Briggs Chandler

1893 Dickson builds a motion picture studio in New Jersey

1893 Addressograph joins office machinery

1894 Wireless telegraphy invented by Marconi

1894 Box making machines give impetus to packaging industry

1894 Berliner's flat phonograph disc competes with the cylinder

1894 The first Kinetoscope parlor opens at 1155 Broadway in New York. Spectators can watch films for 25 cents

1895 Marconi invents radio – sends message over a mile

1895 The first movies – in France, Auguste and Louis Lumière invent the Cinématograph, a combination camera and projector. The image of an oncoming train causes a stampede at the first screening.

1895 Phototypesetting invented by Friese-Greene in England

1895 Kellogg's Corn Flakes in the US

1896 Henry Ford builds the Quadricycle – the first car

1896 Underwood model permits typists to see what they are typing

1896 The monotype sets type by machine in single characters

1896 Electric power is used to run a paper mill

1896 The motion picture projector is manufactured in Britain

1896 X-ray photography invented

1896 First US cinema opens

1897 In England, postmen deliver mail to every home

1897 K.F. Braun invents the cathode-ray tube in Germany

1897 General Electric creates a publicity department

1898 Photographs taken by artificial light

1898 New York State passes a law against misleading advertising

1899 The loudspeaker is invented

1899 Sound is recorded magnetically by Poulsen of Denmark

1899 J. Walter Thompson – the first ad agency in the UK

1899 The Association of American Advertisers in the US

1899 American Marconi Company incorporated; forerunner of RCA


1900 Kodak Brownie makes photography cheaper and simpler

1900 Advertiser Protection Society in UK, renamed Incorporated Society of British Advertisers in 1920

1901 Sale of phonograph disc made of hard resinous shellac

1901 The first electric typewriter, the Blickensderfer

1901 First UK cinema opens

1901 King Camp Gillette introduces the double-edged safety razor.

1901 Marconi sends a radio signal across the Atlantic – Morse code from Cornwall to Newfoundland

1902 Germany's Zeiss invents the four-element Tessar camera lens

1902 Etched zinc engravings start to replace hand-cut wood blocks

1902 US Navy installs radio telephones aboard ships

1902 Photoelectric scanning can send and receive a picture

1902 Trans-Pacific telephone cable connects Canada and Australia

1903 London Daily Mirror illustrates only with photographs

1904 The telephone answering machine is invented

1904 Offset lithography becomes a commercial reality

1904 A photograph is transmitted by wire in Germany

1904 The Great Train Robbery creates demand for fiction movies

1904 The comic book

1904 The double-sided phonograph disc

1905 In Pittsburgh the first nickelodeon opens

1905 Photo, printing, and post combine in the year's craze, picture postcards

1905 In France, Pathe colours black and white films by machine

1905 In New Zealand, the postage meter is introduced

1905 The Yellow Pages

1905 The juke box; 24 choices

1906 In Britain, new process colours books cheaply

1906 The first radio broadcast, classical music, in the US

1906 Lee de Forest invents the three-element vacuum tube

1906 Dunwoody and Pickard build a crystal-and-cat's-whisker radio

1906 An animated cartoon film is produced

1906 Reginald Fessenden invents wireless telephony, a means for radio waves to carry signals a significant distance – he plays the violin to startled ship wireless operators

1906 An experimental sound-on-film motion picture

1906 First UK film newsreel (changed each day at the Empire, Leicester Square)

1906 Strowger invents automatic dial telephone switching

1907 Bell and Howell develop a film projection system

1907 Lumiere brothers invent still colour photography process

1907 First UK radio broadcast – concert for the Fleet at Chatham

1907 Lee de Forest begins regular radio music broadcasts

1907 In Russia, Rosing develops the theory of television

1907 The electric washing machine – The Thor, Hurley Machine Corp, USA

1908 True colour motion pictures introduced by Smith in the US

1908 Henry Ford introduces his Model T automobile.

1909 Radio distress signal saves 1,700 lives after ships collide

1909 First broadcast talk; the subject – women's suffrage

1910 Sweden's Elkstrom invents “flying spot” camera light beam

1910 First colour photograph, France

1911 Efforts are made to bring sound to motion pictures

1911 Rotogravure aids magazine production of photos

1912 The sinking of the Titanic, is relayed overnight to New York via radio

1912 US passes law to control radio stations

1912 First car assembly line from Ford

1912 First neon sign, for a Paris barber, then for Cinzano

1912 Motorised movie cameras replace hand cranks

1912 Feedback and heterodyne systems usher in modern radio

1912 First mail to be carried by airplane

1913 The portable phonograph is manufactured

1913 The first assembly line produces the Model T Ford

1913 Type composing machines roll out of the factory

1914 Radio message is sent to an airplane

1914 In Germany, the 35mm still camera, a Leica

1914 In the US, Goddard begins rocket experiments

1914 American Audit Bureau of Circulations formed

1914 The first transcontinental telephone call

1915 Wireless radio service connects US and Japan

1915 Radio-telephone carries speech across the Atlantic

1915 Birth of a Nation sets new movie standards

1915 The electric loudspeaker

1916 David Sarnoff envisions radio as “a household utility”

1916 Cameras get optical rangefinders

1916 Radios get tuners

1917 Photocomposition begins

1917 Frank Conrad builds a radio station, later KDKA

1917 Condenser microphone aids broadcasting, recording

1917 Association of British Advertising Agencies in UK, renamed Institute of Practitioners in Advertising in 1927

1918 First regular airmail service: Washington, DC to New York

1919 People can now dial telephone numbers themselves

1919 Shortwave radio is invented

1920 The first broadcasting stations are opened

1920 Sound recording is done electrically

1920 Advertiser Protection Society in UK, renamed Incorporated Society of British Advertisers

1920 KDKA in Pittsburgh broadcasts first scheduled radio programs

1921 The word “robot” enters the language

1921 Western Union begins a wirephoto service

1921 Soap powder for washing machines, Chipso from P&G in US

1921 First hamburger chain, White Castle, US

1922 British Broadcasting Company formed – daily radio begins in UK

1922 Technicolour introduces two-colour process for movies

1922 First film with optical sound track produced by Germany's UFA

1922 First radio advertisement in USA, $100 for ten minutes

1922 First 3-D movie, requires spectacles with one red and one green lens

1922 Singers desert phonograph horn mouths for acoustic studios

1922 BBC starts radio broadcasts in UK

1922 564 radio stations in the US

1922 Nanook of the North, the first documentary

1922 First portable radio in US

1923 Walt and Roy Disney found a film studio in Hollywood

1923 Zworykin's electronic iconoscope camera, and kinescope display, tube

1923 People on a ship can talk to people on another

1923 Ribbon microphone becomes the studio standard

1923 Women's Advertising Club of London founded

1923 A picture, broken into dots, is sent by wire

1923 A.C. Nielsen Company is founded and provides measurements of radio audiences for advertisers in the US

1923 16 mm nonflammable film makes its debut

1923 John Orr Young and Raymond Rubicam form Young & Rubicam in US

1923 Kodak introduces home movie equipment

1923 First publication of Radio Times in UK

1923 Neon advertising signs

1924 Marlboro is launched, targeted at women with the line “Mild as May”. Pink filters hide lipstick marks.

1924 Low tech achievement: notebooks get spiral bindings

1924 The Eveready Hour is the first sponsored radio program

1924 At KDKA, Conrad sets up a short-wave radio transmitter

1924 Pictures are transmitted over telephone lines

1924 Birth of IBM

1924 Two and a half million radio sets in the US

1925 The Leica 35 mm camera sets a new standard

1925 Commercial picture facsimile radio service across the US

1925 The electric phonograph is built

1925 Advertising Association founded in UK

1925 Radio's The Smith Family introduces the soap opera format in the US

1925 A moving image, the blades of a model windmill, is telecast

1925 From France, a wide-screen film

1926 The first radio jingle: Wheaties

1926 Commercial picture facsimile radio service across the Atlantic

1926 The birth of TV – John Logie Baird demonstrates an electro-mechanical TV system

1926 Some radios get automatic volume control, a mixed blessing

1926 The first 16mm movie is shot in the US

1926 Goddard launches liquid-fuel rocket

1926 Permanent radio network, NBC, is formed

1926 Bell Telephone Labs transmit film by television

1927 NBC begins two radio networks; CBS formed

1927 Farnsworth assembles a complete electronic TV system

1927 Jolson's “The Jazz Singer” is the first popular “talkie”

1927 Movietone offers newsreels in sound

1927 US Radio Act declares public ownership of the airwaves

1927 Association of British Advertising Agencies in UK, renamed Institute of Practitioners in Advertising

1927 Technicolour

1927 Solus Club founded in UK

1927 Negative feedback makes hi-fi possible

1928 NAB bans radio ads during 'family hour': 7-11pm

1928 Baird demonstrates colour TV on electro-mechanical system

1928 Lintas (Lever International Advertising Services) is formed as a house agency for Unilever in England, Holland and Germany

1928 The first Mickey Mouse cartoon

1928 The teletype machine makes its debut

1928 TV sets are put in three UK homes; programming begins

1928 Baird invents a video disc to record television

1928 John Baird beams a TV image from England to the US

1928 In Schenectady, NY, the first scheduled television broadcasts

1928 GE introduces a television set with a 3″ × 4″ screen. The first television is sold — a Daven for $75

1928 Steamboat Willie introduces Mickey Mouse

1928 A motion picture is shown in colour

1928 First all talking movie

1928 Times Square gets moving headlines in electric lights

1928 IBM adopts the 80-column punched card

1928 Battery eliminators allow radios to run on normal current

1929 Experiments begin on colour television

1929 Telegraph ticker sends 500 characters per minute

1929 BBC starts experimental TV broadcasts

1929 Ship passengers can phone relatives ashore

1929 William Benton and Chester Bowles open Benton & Bowles

1929 First packaged frozen food, Fresh Ice Fillets, Canada

1929 Brokers watch stock prices on an automated electric board

1929 The car radio

1929 In Germany, magnetic sound recording on plastic tape

1929 The first television studio is built in London

1929 American Tobacco Co. spends $12.3 million to advertise Lucky Strikes – the most any company has ever spent on single-product advertising.

1929 Bell Lab transmits stills in colour by mechanical scanning

1929 Zworykin's cathode-ray tube “kinescope” receiver, 60 scan lines

1930 Experimental 30-line TV transmissions in the UK

1930 Penny press becomes first truly mass medium in the US

1930 Photo flashbulbs replace dangerous flash powder

1930 “Golden Age” of radio begins in US

1930 First use of TV for advertising, closed circuit, in UK and US

1930 Lowell Thomas begins first regular network newscast

1930 TVs based on British mechanical system roll off factory line

1930 Bush's differential analyzer introduces the computer

1930 AT&T tries the picture telephone

1931 Commercial teletype service

1931 Electronic TV broadcasts in Los Angeles and Moscow

1931 Exposure meters go on sale to photographers

1931 NBC experimentally doubles TV transmission to 120-line screen

1932 Disney adopts a three-colour Technicolour process for cartoons

1932 First colour photo in a British newspaper, The Times, 17 March

1932 Kodak introduces 8 mm film for home movies

1932 George W. Gallup joins Y&R as director of research

1932 The “Times” of London uses its new Times Roman typeface

1932 Stereophonic sound in a motion picture, “Napoleon”

1932 Zoom lens is invented (but a practical model is 21 years off)

1932 NBC and CBS allow prices to be mentioned in radio commercials

1933 The first Mars bar

1933 Edwin Armstrong invents FM (but its real future is 20 years off)

1933 Multiple-flash sports photography

1933 Singing telegrams

1933 First household detergrent, Dreft, in US

1933 Phonograph records go stereo

1934 Drive-in movie theater opens in New Jersey

1934 Associated Press starts wirephoto service

1934 In Germany, a mobile television truck roams the streets

1934 In Scotland, teletypesetting sets type by phone line

1934 Three-colour Technicolour used in live action film

1934 Half of the homes in the US have radios

1934 Mutual Radio Network begins operations

1935 German single lens reflex roll film camera synchronized for flash bulbs

1935 Audio tape recorders go on sale in Germany

1935 IBM's electric typewriter comes off the assembly line

1935 First Kit Kat in UK

1935 The Penguin paperback book sells for the price of 10 cigarettes

1935 Leo Burnett leaves Erwin, Wasey to start his own agency in Chicago

1935 All-electronic VHF television comes out of the lab

1935 Eastman-Kodak develops Kodachrome colour film

1936 Berlin Olympics are televised closed circuit

1936 BBC starts first regular 'high definition' TV service in the world, three hours each day

1936 Bell Labs invents a voice recognition machine

1936 Kodachrome film sharpens colour photography

1936 First National Readership Survey in UK

1936 Co-axial cable connects New York to Philadelphia

1936 Alan Turing describes a general purpose computer

1936 Maltesers launched in UK

1937 Stibitz of Bell Labs invents the electrical digital calculator

1937 Pulse Code Modulation points the way to digital transmission

1937 NBC sends mobile TV truck onto New York streets

1937 The Hindenburg crash, is broadcast coast to coast in the US

1937 The photocopier is invented by Carlson

1937Snow White is the first feature-length cartoon

1938 Baird demonstrates live TV in colour

1938 Broadcasts can be taped and edited

1938 Two brothers named Biro invent the ballpoint pen in Argentina

1938 CBS “World News Roundup” ushers in modern newscasting

1938 Radio surpasses magazines as a source of ad revenue in US

1938 DuMont markets electronic television receiver for the home

1938 International Advertising Association formed

1938 Radio drama, “War of the Worlds”, causes national panic

1938 In the UK, ISBA/IPA first survey of radio listening

1939 Mechanical scanning system abandoned

1939 The world's first electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff-Berry Computer is created with a $7000 grant at Iowa State University

1939 New York World's Fair shows television to public

1939 Regular TV broadcasts begin in the US – P&G is on air within five minutes with an ad for Ivory soap

1939 Air mail service across the Atlantic

1939 Hewlett-Packard Company is born

1939 Many TV firsts: sports coverage, variety show, feature film, etc

1940 Fantasia introduces stereo sound to American public

1940 CBS demonstrates color television in New York.

1940 Ted Bates leaves Benton & Bowles to start his own agency in US

1940-45 UK Government adspend during WWII was £9.5m

1940 WNBT, the first regularly operating television station, debuts in New York with an estimated 10,000 viewers.

1941 Stereo is installed in a Moscow movie theater

1941 FCC sets US TV standards

1941 CBS and NBC start commercial transmission; WW II intervenes

1941 Goldmark at CBS experiments with electronic colour TV

1941 7,500 TV sets in New York City, NBC's WNBT starts telecasting July 1

1941 The first colour TV commercial, for Bulova watches, in US

1941 Microwave transmission

1941 Zuse's Z3 is the first computer controlled by software

1942 Kodacolour process produces the colour print

1944 Harvard's Mark I, first digital computer, put in service

1944 IBM offers a typewriter with proportional spacing

1944 First high-fidelity recordings, from Decca in UK

1944 NBC presents first US network newscast, a curiosity

1945 Clarke envisions geo-synchronous communication satellites

1946 Faraway Hill, the first network soap opera, debuts on the DuMont network

1946 BBC licence fee for TV and radio costs £2 per annum

1946 Jukeboxes go into mass production

1946 The first electronic computer – ENIAC – from the Univ. of Pennsylvania makes 5,000 additions in one second, contains 17,468 valves, is 8 feet high and 80 feet long and weighs 30 tons

1946 Automobile radio telephones connect to telephone network

1946 French engineers build a phototypesetting machine

1946 UK cinema admissions are 635 million to 4,703 cinemas

1947 Meet the Press debuts on NBC – becomes TV's longest-running program

1947 Hungarian engineer in England invents holography

1947 The transistor is invented, will replace vacuum tubes

1947 The zoom lens covers baseball's world series for TV

1947 Holography is invented

1947 First recorded TV transmission in US

1948 The LP record arrives on a vinyl disk

1948 Land's Polaroid camera prints pictures in a minute

1948 Airplane re-broadcasts TV signal across nine states

1948 News of the World sells 8 million copies in UK

1949 The birth of network TV in the US

1949 RCA introduces the 45 rpm record

1949 Cable television brings better reception to rural areas in US

1949 Whirlwind at MIT is the first commercial computer

1949 Magnetic core computer memory is invented

1950 Phonevision, the first pay-per-view service, in the US

1950 AC Nielsen's Audimeters track TV viewer watching

1950 Regular colour television transmission in USA

1950 Changeable typewriter typefaces in use

1950 First credit cards, Diners Club, US

1951 One and a half million TV sets in US, a tenfold jump in one year

1951 Cinerama dazzles with a wide, curved screen and three projectors

1951 Computers are sold commercially

1951 Still cameras get built-in flash units

1951 Coaxial cable reaches coast to coast in the US

1952 3-D movies offer thrills to the audience

1952 Bing Crosby's company tests video recording

1952 Sony produces the first transistor radios – the TR-55

1952 EDVAC takes computer technology a giant leap forward

1952 Univac projects the winner of the presidential election on CBS

1952 Zenith proposes pay-TV system using punched cards

1953 NTSC colour standard adopted in the US

1954 USSR launches Sputnik

1954 Radio sets in the world now outnumber daily newspapers

1954 Regular colour TV broadcasts begin in the US

1954 NBC broadcasts the World Series in colour for the first time

1954 TV revenue exceeds radio revenues in the US for the first time

1955 Tests begin to communicate via fiber optics

1955 Disneyland is opened

1955 The Marlboro Man campaign debuts

1955 First fluoride toothpaste, Crest, US

1955 Music is recorded on tape in stereo

1955 First UK TV commercial, Gibbs SR Toothpaste, 22 September

1956 The first hard disk drive is born at IBM – the size of two refrigerators and holding 5MB of data at a cost of about $10,000 per MB

1956 Ampex builds a practical videotape recorder

1956 Bell tests the picture phone

1956 Launch of longest running TV campaign, PG Tips Chimps, in UK

1956 First transatlantic telephone calls by cable

1957 Soviet Union's Sputnik sends signals from space

1957 FORTRAN becomes the first high-level computer language

1957 First transistor radio, Sony TR63, Japan

1957 A surgical operation is televised

1957 Vance Packard's “The Hidden Persuaders,” attacks advertising

1957 First sponsored sports event in UK, Whitbread Gold Cup

1957 First book to be entirely phototypeset is offset printed

1958 Videotape delivers colour

1958 Stereo recording is introduced

1958 Data moves over regular phone circuits

1958 Broadcast bounced off rocket, pre-satellite communication

1958 The laser is invented at Bell labs

1958 Cable carries FM radio stations

1959 Local ads go on cable TV in the US

1959 Xerox debuts the first automatic paper copier

1959 First cassette recorder in UK, Garrad

1959 “A Mars a day helps you work, rest and play”

1959 The microchip is invented

1959 Bell Labs experiments with artificial intelligence

1959 French SECAM and German PAL TV systems introduced

1960 Echo I, a US balloon in orbit, reflects radio signals to Earth

1960 A movie gets Smell-O-Vision, but the public just sniffs

1960 McCann restructures agencies under Interpublic Group of Cos.

1960 Zenith tests subscription TV in the US; unsuccessful

1961 First electronic game – Spacewars – from MIT

1961 US boxing match test shows potential of pay-TV

1961 FCC approves FM stereo broadcasting; spurs FM development

1961 Bell Labs tests communication by light waves

1961 IBM introduces the “golf ball” typewriter

1961 Letraset makes headlines simple

1961 The time-sharing computer is developed

1962 The minicomputer arrives

1962 Telstar satellite transmits a TV image across the Atlantic

1962 US Ranger 4 lands on the moon

1962 The first plastic Visa credit card in United States invented by Bank of America

1963 First international standard compact audio tape cassette, Phillips Corporation

1963 Zip codes started in the US

1963 CBS and NBC TV newscasts expand to 30 minutes in colour

1963 PDP-8 becomes the first popular minicomputer

1963 Polaroid camera instant photography adds colour

1963 Communications satellite is placed in geo-synchronous orbit

1963 TV news “comes of age” in reporting JFK assassination

1964 Olympic Games in Tokyo telecast live globally by satellite

1964 Touch Tone telephones and Picturephone service

1964 From Japan, the videotape recorder for home use

1964 Russian scientists bounce a signal off Jupiter

1964 Intelsat, international satellite organization, is formed

1964 Epson's EP-101 dot matrix printer (a timer for the Olympics)

1965 Electronic phone exchange gives customers extra services

1965 Satellites begin domestic TV distribution in the Soviet Union

1965 Computer time-sharing becomes popular

1965 Colour news film

1965 Cigarette ads banned on UK television

1965 Communications satellite Early Bird (Intelsat I) orbits above the Atlantic

1965 Ted Nelson coins the term 'hypertext'

1965 Kodak offers Super 8 film for home movies

1965 Cartridge audio tapes go on sale for a few years

1965 Most broadcasts are in colour in the USA

1966 Linotron can produce 1,000 characters per second

1966 Fiber optic cable multiplies communication channels

1966 Xerox sells the Telecopier, the first fax machine

1966 First direct TV pictures from the moon

1966 20,000 people in UK ad agencies

1967 BBC2 launches first colour TV transmissions in Europe

1967 Dolby eliminates audio hiss

1967 Sony introduces the Trinitron colour TV

1967 Computers get the light pen

1967 Pre-recorded movies on videotape sold for home TV sets

1967 Cordless telephones get some calls

1967 200 million telephones in the world – half are in the US

1968 Intel is founded

1968 Japanese invent eight inch floppy diskette

1968 Intelsat completes global communications satellite loop

1968 200 million TV sets in the world – 78 million are in US

1968 The RAM microchip reaches the market

1969 ARPANET, the birth of the Internet, in the US

1969 Astronauts send live video from the moon

1969 Videotex, the birth of Teletext in the UK

1969 Sony's U-Matic puts videotape on a cassette

1969 First UK colour TV commercial, Bird's Eye Peas, 15 november

1969 The FCC bans all cigarette advertising on television and radio in US

1969 Seiko produces the first quartz wristwatch

1970 In Germany, a videodisc is demonstrated

1970 The first ATM (Automated Teller Machine)

1970 Saatchi & Saatchi is established in London

1970 First Jumbo Jet service, Boeing 747, London-New York

1970 US Post Office and Western Union offer Mailgrams

1970 The computer floppy disc is an instant success

1971 Intel builds the microprocessor, “a computer on a chip”

1971 Wang 1200 is the world's first word processor

1971 Cigarette ad ban on radio and TV in US

1972 E-mail invented by BBN's Ray Tomlinson

1972 First desktop electronic calculator by Hewlett Packard, the model 35 for $395

1972 Time Inc.'s HBO starts the first pay-TV service for cable

1972 Sony introduces 3/4 inch “U-Matic” cassette VCR

1972 Polaroid camera can focus by itself

1972 The compact disc is invented in the US

1972 The Inter-Networking Group is created to develop standards

1972 Digital television comes out of the lab

1972 The BBC offers “Ceefax,” two-way cable information system

1972 Landsat I, “eye-in-the-sky” satellite, is launched

1972 The first handheld calculator, from Texas Instruments

1972 Sony's Port-a-Pak, a portable video recorder

1972 First electronic video game for TV as an add-on, “Pong”

1973 The microcomputer, Micral, is born in France costing $1,750, 2K of RAM, 500 sold

1973 First non-US connections to the internet

1973 First radio commercial in UK, on Capital Radio

1973 IBM's Selectric typewriter is now “self-correcting”

1974 BBC transmits Teletext data to TV sets

1974 WordStar – world's first word processor computers

1974 First products with barcodes

1974 First domestic video cassette recorder, from Philips

1974 First use of the word “internet”

1975 Microsoft Corporation founded

1975 First wireless handheld telephone

1975 First major Internet Service Provider – CompuServe

1975 The microcomputer, in kit form, reaches the US home market

1975 Sony's Betamax and JVC's VHS battle for public acceptance

1976 Apple I – Jobs and Wozniak's first Apple computer

1976 Ted Turner delivers programming nationwide by satellite

1976 Still cameras are controlled by microprocessors

1976 First supercomputer, Cray-1, makes 240 million calculations per second

1976 First Concorde flight, British Airways London-Bahrain

1976 Viking 1 & Viking 2 landed on Mars

1976 British TV networks begin first teletext system

1977 Columbus, Ohio, residents try 2-way cable experiment, QUBE

1977 The Apple II PC has colour graphics and a floppy disk intead of cassette tapes

1978 From Konica, the point-and-shoot camera

1978 PBS goes to satellite for delivery, abandoning telephone lines

1978 Electronic typewriters go on sale

1979 Speech recognition machine has a vocabulary of 1,000 words

1979 First TV teletext service, Prestel by UK Post Office

1979 From Holland comes the digital videodisc read by laser

1979 In Japan, first cellular phone network

1979 Computerized laser printing is a boon to Chinese printers

1980 Sony Walkman tape player starts a fad

1980 In France, a holographic film shows a gull flying

1980 Phototypesetting can be done by laser

1980 Microsoft DOS version 1.0

1980 Intelsat V relays 12,000 phone calls and 2 colour TV channels

1980 Public international electronic fax service, Intelpost, begins

1980 Atlanta gets first fiber optics system

1980 Birth of CNN 24-hour news channel

1980 Wordstar is first PC word processor and Lotus 1-2-3 is first spreadsheet

1980 Addressable converters pinpoint individual homes

1980 First compact discs, from Phillips, in Netherlands

1981 450,000 transistors fit on a silicon chip 1/4-inch square

1981 Hologram technology improves, now in video games

1981 The IBM PC costs $4,500

1981 The laptop computer is introduced

1981 The Space Shuttle

1981 MTV launches

1981 First portable home video game, Game & Watch, from Nintendo

1981 The first mouse pointing device

1982 From Japan, a camera with electronic picture storage, no film

1982 USA Today type set in regional plants by satellite command

1982 The first PC Local Area Network

1982 Sky Channel (first European satellite TV channel) launched

1982 Kodak camera uses film on a disc cassette

1982 200 computers connected to the internet worldwide

1983 Cellular phone network starts in US

1983 Lasers and plastics improve newspaper production

1983 Computer chip holds 288,000 bits of memory

1983 Time names the computer as “Man of the Year”

1983 AT&T forced to break up; 7 Baby Bells are born

1983 First cordless telephone in UK

1983 American videotext service starts; fails in three years

1984 Portable compact disc player arrives

1984 National Geographic puts a hologram on its cover

1984 A television set can be worn on the wrist

1984 First PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) the Psion Organiser in the UK

1984 First UK satellite TV channel, Sky TV

1984 Japanese introduce high quality facsmile

1984 Camera and tape deck combine in the camcorder

1984 Apple Macintosh, IBM PC AT

1984 The 32-bit microprocessor

1984 The one megabyte memory chip

1985 First colour printers and photocopiers

1985 Digital image processing

1985 The first CD-ROM, from Philips, can put 270,000 pages of text on a CD record

1985 Cellular telephones go into cars in the US

1985 Picture, broken into dots, can be transmitted and recreated

1985 US TV networks begin satellite distribution to affiliates

1985 At Expo, a Sony TV screen measures 40×25 meters

1985 Sony builds a radio the size of a credit card

1985 In Japan, 3-D television; no spectacles needed

1985 Pay-per-view channels open for business

1986 HBO scrambles its signals

1986 Cable shopping networks

1986 Needham Harper Worldwide, BBDO International and Doyle Dane Bernbach merge to create Omnicom Group

1986 Microsoft Windows 1.0

1986 Saatchi & Saatchi buys Ted Bates Worldwide, becoming the world's largest agency holging company

1987 Half of all US homes with TV are on cable

1987 Government deregulates US cable industry

1987 Martin Sorrell's WPP Group, buys JWT for $600 million

1987 First debit card in UK, for Barclays Connect

1988 Government brochure mailed to 107 million US addresses

1988 WPP acquires the Ogilvy Group for $864 million

1989 Tiananmen Square demonstrates power of media to inform the world

1989 Pacific Link fiber optic cable opens, can carry 40,000 phone calls

1990 World Wide Web invented by Tim Berners-Lee

1990 The World comes on-line (world.std.com) – the first commercial provider of Internet dial-up access

1990 IBM sells Selectric, a sign of the typewriter's passing

1990 First palmtop computers

1990 99% of U.S. households have at least one radio, the average owning 5

1990 Most 2-inch videotape machines are also gone

1990 Videodisc returns in a new laser form

1991 Beauty and the Beast, a cartoon, Oscar nominee as best picture

1991 The Line Mode Browser – the first internet browser

1991 CNN dominates news coverage worldwide during Gulf War

1991 Live TV news switching from world capitals during Gulf War looks simple

1991 Denver viewers order movies at home from list of more than 1,000 titles

1991 Moviegoers astonished by computer morphing in Terminator 2

1991 More than 4 billion video cassette tape rentals in the US

1991 3 in 4 US homes own VCRs; fastest selling domestic appliance in history

1992 US Cable TV revenues reach $22 billion

1992 First CD-ROM for computers released (single speed)

1992 900 million TV sets in the world; 201 million in the US

1992 First use of the term “surfing the internet”

1992 Text messaging (SMS) on mobile phones starts in the UK

1992 At least 50 US cities have competing cable services

1993 DVD invented by Toshiba

1993 Dinosaurs roam the earth in Jurassic Park

1993 “V-chip” invented to block out violent television programs

1993 Mosaic – the first graphical internet browser

1993 Kodak and Apple produce first digital still image camera for consumers

1993 1 in 3 Americans does some work at home instead of driving to work

1994 World's first digital TV service – DirecTV in the US by satellite

1994 Netscape launches

1994 First cyberstation, RT-FM, broadcasts from Interop in Las Vegas

1994 135 million PCs worldwide

1994 After 25 years, US government privatises Internet management

1994 First ad on the World Wide Web, for Wired magazine

1994 Pizza Hut sells pizzas over the internet

1994 To reduce Western influence, 12 nations ban or restrict satellite dishes

1994 First Virtual, the first cyberbank, opens up for business

1994 Interactive TV introduced in the US

1995 zenithmedia.com launches

1995 Amazon.com launches

1995 Maurice and Charles Saatchi create M&C Saatchi

1995 Sony demonstrates flat TV set

1995 RealAudio lets internet users hear in near real-time

1995 Major US dailies create national on-line newspaper network

1996 High Definition Television, HDTV, standard accepted

1996 Saudi Arabia confines Internet access to universities and hospitals

1997 Sony and Philips / Magnavox release WebTV Internet television tuner

1997 Sony releases DVD 4 GB five inch compact disk format

1997 The first personal video recorder – TiVo in the US

1998 The first digital terrestrial TV service, OnDigital, in the UK

1998 Hewlett Packard releases the first colour Palmtop computer

1998 Panasonic releases first hand held DVD player

1998 Titanic is the highest-grossing film of all time, $580 million in the US

1998 Optical Automation announces portable wrist computer with still camera

1999 150 million Internet users worldwide: over 50% in the US

1999 Mobile phones used to buy from vending machines in Finland

1999 Vodafone (UK) buys AirTouch (US) for $56 billion

1999 Telephone commercials in exchange for free calls

1999 Open… launches the worlds first interactive TV service, in the UK

1999 First WAP mobile phone advertisement in Finland


2000 More e-mail than postal mail in the US

2000 First impulse purchase interactive TV advertisement, in the UK

2000 Internet goes free – no access or use charges – and fails

2000 TV banking starts with Open…. in the UK

2000 Mobile phone banking starts

2000 ADSL delivers on-demand TV down phone wires

2000 30m domain names registered on the World Wide Web on October 4

2000 The first e-books

2001 Recordable DVD triggers beginning of the end of video tape…and VCRs

2001 In the UK Tesco gets 70,000 online grocery orders each week

2001 505 million e-mail accounts worldwide

2001 Most hotels provide in-room internet access

2001 More mobile phones than PCs in the world

2001 520 million Internet users worldwide: 32% in the US

2002 Web cameras provide cheap home security

2002 Internet used to supply in-home “jukeboxes”

2003 First personally customised TV ads

2003 Internet enabled refrigerators

2003 Digital photography sends camera film on a fast road to extinction

2004 More mobile phones than fixed line phones worldwide

2004 Internet enabled car radios provide weather and ads

2005 Billboards send electronic coupons to mobile phones

2005 36 billion person-to-person e-mails sent each day

2006 Portable device batteries last weeks without recharge

2006 Photo-realistic virtual reality games for all ages

2006 Instant internet PCs – no 'boot up' or 'dial up'

2006 Digital TV recorders can store hundreds of hours on single disc

2007 PCs, phones and TVs recognise voice commands

2007 Pre-recorded TV rapidly gains share of viewing vs live

2008 Wrist watches become internet communicators

2008 TV-on-demand at mass market prices – viewers create channels

2009 Analogue TV signal switched off in the UK

2009 Digital-to-analogue TV adaptors a big new sector (for bedroom sets)

2010 The video phone takes off (all PCs are also phones and TVs)

2010 Thin, flat, large screens used for PC/TV/Phone

2010 Internet provides vast array of interactive TV services

2010 Most TV ads are interactive

2011 Bathroom mirrors display e-mail ticker while you shave / put on makeup

2012 Computers generate photo-realistic movies and ads – including actors

2015 In home entertainment becomes largest daily household expense

2015 One third of American workforce telecommutes

2017 Low cost electronic displays match quality of ink and paper

2020 Humans walk on Mars

2020 Average life expectancy in western world passes 100

2020 In home shopping larger than out of home

2025 Coronation Street still highest rating TV programme in UK

2030 “Home help” robots are actually helpful and affordable

2030 Most books, newspapers, magazines and libraries are electronic

Bron: http://www.zenithmedia.com/

Marco Derksen
Partner bij Upstream

Oprichter/partner Upstream, Marketingfacts, Arnhem Direct, SportNext, TravelNext, RvT VPRO, Bestuur Luxor Live, social business, onderwijs, fotografie en vader!


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